v. hear, examine, and decide as a court case; form an opinion of; infer, think.
n. One who judges
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* Joseph said to them (his older brothers), ďDonít be afraid, for am I in the place of God?" Genesis 50:19 (i.e., for revenge)
* Who made Moses a ruler and judge over the Hebrews in Egypt? Exodus 2:14
Judge [Easton Bible Dictionary]
(Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler, rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause.
This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judges 2:18), a period of general anarchy and confusion. "The office of judges or regents was held during life, but it was not hereditary, neither could they appoint their successors. Their authority was limited by the law alone, and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim (Numbers 27:21). Their authority extended only over those tribes by whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of dignity. The only cases of direct divine appointment are those of Gideon and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin to deliver Israel.' Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio upon him." Of five of the judges, Tola (Judges 10:1), Jair (3), Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (12:8-15), we have no record at all beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its onward progress.
In Exodus 2:14 Moses is so styled. This fact may indicate that while for revenue purposes the "taskmasters" were over the people, they were yet, just as at a later time when under the Romans, governed by their own rulers.
The Judges [Smith's Bible Dictionary]
The judges were temporary and special deliverers, sent by God to deliver the Israelites from their oppressors; not supreme magistrates, succeeding to the authority of Moses and Joshua. Their power only extended over portions of the country, and some of them were contemporaneous. Their first work was that of deliverers and leaders in war; they then administered justice to the people, and their authority supplied the want of a regular government. Even while the administration of Samuel gave something like a settled government to the south, there was scope for the irregular exploits of Samson on the borders of the Philistines; and Samuel at last established his authority as judge and prophet, but still as the servant of Jehovah, only to see it so abused by his sons as to exhaust the patience of the people, who at length demanded a king , after the pattern of the surrounding nations. The following is a list of judges, whose history is given under their respective names:First servitude, to Mesopotamia -- 8 years.More than likely some of these ruled simultaneously. On the chronology of the judges, see the following article.
- First judge: Othniel. 40 years.
Second servitude, to Moab -- 18 years.
- Second judge: Ehud; 80 years.
- Third judge: Shamgar.
Third servitude, to Jabin and Sisera -- 20 years.
- Fourth judge: Deborah and Barak. 40 years.
Fourth servitude, to Midian -- 7 years.
- Fifth judge: Gideon; 40 years.
- Sixth judge: Abimelech; 3 years.
- Seventh judge: Tola; 23 years.
- Eighth judge: Jair. 22 years.
Fifth servitude, to Ammon -- 18 years.
- Ninth judge: Jephthah; 6 years.
- Tenth judge: Ibzan; 7 years.
- Eleventh judge: Elon; 10 years.
- Twelfth judge: Abdon. 8 years.
Sixth servitude, to the Philistines -- 40 years.
- Thirteenth judge: Samson 20 years.
- Fourteenth judge: Eli; 40 years.
- Fifteenth judge: Samuel.
Judges of Israel [Thompson Chain Reference]
Names of the Rulers before Saul was Anointed king
- 1. Othniel: Judges 3:9
- 2. Ehud: Judges 3:15
- 3. Shamgar: Judges 3:31
- 4. Deborah: Judges 4:5
- 5. Gideon: Judges 6:36
- 6. Abimelech: Judges 9:1
- 7. Tola: Judges 10:1
- 8. Jair: Judges 10:3
- 9. Jephthah: Judges 11:11
- 10. Ibzan: Judges 12:8
- 11. Elon: Judges 12:11
- 12. Abdon: Judges 12:13
- 13. Samson: Judges 16:30
- 14. Eli: 1 Samuel 4:18
Also see 1 Samuel 1:3
- 15. Samuel: 1 Samuel 7:15
Also see 1 Samuel 1:20 | 1 Samuel 3:1
General References to
- Exodus 18:13
- Deuteronomy 1:16
- Deuteronomy 16:18
- Deuteronomy 25:1
- 1 Samuel 2:25
- 1 Samuel 7:16
- 2 Chronicles 19:5
- Matthew 5:25
- Luke 18:2
After Samuel, Kings before the Division of the Kingdom
- SEE Saul
- SEE David
- SEE Solomon
Judge [Thompson Chain Reference]
God as Christ as
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