EXILE and CAPTIVITY
Also see Jews and the Return of Israel

EXILE in scriptures [BibleGateway Search]

Cross Reference Bible links
2 Kings 17:23 - ".. the LORD removed (Israel) from His presence ... the people of Israel were taken from their homeland into exile in Assyria..."

CAPTIVITY in scriptures [BibleGateway Search]
Cross Reference Bible links
Job 42:10 - Yahweh turned the captivity of Job when he prayed for his friends. Yahweh gave Job twice as much as he had before.

EXILE and CAPTIVITY (below) [Easton Bible Dictionary]

# Of the kingdom of Israel.
In the time of Pekah, Tiglath-pileser II. carried away captive into Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; Compare Isaiah 10:5,6) a part of the inhabitants of Galilee and of Gilead (B.C. 741).

After the destruction of Samaria (B.C. 720) by Shalmaneser and Sargon (q.v.), there was a general deportation of the Israelites into Mesopotamia and Media (2 Kings 17:6; 18:9; 1 Chronicles 5:26). (See ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF.)

# Of the kingdom of the two tribes, the kingdom of Judah.

Nebuchadnezzar, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 25:1), invaded Judah, and carried away some royal youths, including Daniel and his companions (B.C. 606), together with the sacred vessels of the temple (2 Chronicles 36:7; Daniel 1:2). In B.C. 598 (Jeremiah 52:28; 2Kings 24:12), in the beginning of Jehoiachin's reign (2 Kings 24:8), Nebuchadnezzar carried away captive 3,023 eminent Jews, including the king (2 Chronicles 36:10), with his family and officers (2 Kings 24:12), and a large number of warriors (16), with very many persons of note (14), and artisans (16), leaving behind only those who were poor and helpless. This was the first general deportation to Babylon.

In B.C. 588, after the revolt of Zedekiah (q.v.), there was a second general deportation of Jews by Nebuchadnezzar (Jeremiah 52:29; 2Kings 25:8), including 832 more of the principal men of the kingdom. He carried away also the rest of the sacred vessels (2 Chronicles 36:18). From this period, when the temple was destroyed (2 Kings 25:9), to the complete restoration, B.C. 517 (Ezra 6:15), is the period of the "seventy years."

In B.C. 582 occurred the last and final deportation. The entire number Nebuchadnezzar carried captive was 4,600 heads of families with their wives and children and dependants (Jeremiah 52:30; 43:5-7; 2Chr 36:20, etc.). Thus the exiles formed a very considerable community in Babylon.

When Cyrus granted permission to the Jews to return to their own land (Ezra 1:5; 7:13), only a comparatively small number at first availed themselves of the privilege. It cannot be questioned that many belonging to the kingdom of Israel ultimately joined the Jews under Ezra, Zerubbabel, and Nehemiah, and returned along with them to Jerusalem (Jeremiah 50:4,5,17-20,33-35).

Large numbers had, however, settled in the land of Babylon, and formed numerous colonies in different parts of the kingdom. Their descendants very probably have spread far into Eastern lands and become absorbed in the general population. (See JUDAH, KINGDOM OF; CAPTIVITY .)

CAPTIVITY [Easton Bible Dictionary]

# Of Israel.
The kingdom of the ten tribes was successively invaded by several Assyrian kings. Pul (q.v.) imposed a tribute on Menahem of a thousand talents of silver (2 Kings 15:19,20; 1 Chronicles 5:26) (B.C. 762), and Tiglath-pileser, in the days of Pekah (B.C. 738), carried away the trans-Jordanic tribes and the inhabitants of Galilee into Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; Isaiah 9:1). Subsequently Shalmaneser invaded Israel and laid siege to Samaria, the capital of the kingdom. During the siege he died, and was succeeded by Sargon, who took the city, and transported the great mass of the people into Assyria (B.C. 721), placing them in Halah and in Habor, and in the cities of the Medes (2 Kings 17:3,5). Samaria was never again inhabited by the Israelites. The families thus removed were carried to distant cities, many of them not far from the Caspian Sea, and their place was supplied by colonists from Babylon and Cuthah, etc. (2 Kings 17:24). Thus terminated the kingdom of the ten tribes, after a separate duration of two hundred and fifty-five years (B.C. 975-721).

Many speculations have been indulged in with reference to these ten tribes. But we believe that all, except the number that probably allied themselves with Judah and shared in their restoration under Cyrus, are finally lost.

"Like the dew on the mountain, Like the foam on the river, Like the bubble on the fountain, They are gone, and for ever."

# Of Judah.

In the third year of Jehoiachim, the eighteenth king of Judah (B.C. 605), Nebuchadnezzar having overcome the Egyptians at Carchemish, advanced to Jerusalem with a great army. After a brief siege he took that city, and carried away the vessels of the sanctuary to Babylon, and dedicated them in the Temple of Belus (2 Kings 24:1; 2Chr 36:6,7; Daniel 1:1,2). He also carried away the treasures of the king, whom he made his vassal. At this time, from which is dated the "seventy years" of captivity (Jeremiah 25; Daniel 9:1,2), Daniel and his companions were carried to Babylon, there to be brought up at the court and trained in all the learning of the Chaldeans. After this, in the fifth year of Jehoiakim, a great national fast was appointed (Jeremiah 36:9), during which the king, to show his defiance, cut up the leaves of the book of Jeremiah's prophecies as they were read to him in his winter palace, and threw them into the fire. In the same spirit he rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:1), who again a second time (B.C. 598) marched against Jerusalem, and put Jehoiachim to death, placing his son Jehoiachin on the throne in his stead. But Jehoiachin's counsellors displeasing Nebuchadnezzar, he again a third time turned his army against Jerusalem, and carried away to Babylon a second detachment of Jews as captives, to the number of 10,000 (2 Kings 24:13; Jeremiah 24:1; 2Chr 36:10), among whom were the king, with his mother and all his princes and officers, also Ezekiel, who with many of his companions were settled on the banks of the river Chebar (q.v.). He also carried away all the remaining treasures of the temple and the palace, and the golden vessels of the sanctuary.

Mattaniah, the uncle of Jehoiachin, was now made king over what remained of the kingdom of Judah, under the name of Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:17; 2Chr 36:10). After a troubled reign of eleven years his kingdom came to an end (2 Chronicles 36:11). Nebuchadnezzar, with a powerful army, besieged Jerusalem, and Zedekiah became a prisoner in Babylon. His eyes were put out, and he was kept in close confinement till his death (2 Kings 25:7). The city was spoiled of all that was of value, and then given up to the flames. The temple and palaces were consumed, and the walls of the city were levelled with the ground (B.C. 586), and all that remained of the people, except a number of the poorest class who were left to till the ground and dress the vineyards, were carried away captives to Babylon. This was the third and last deportation of Jewish captives. The land was now utterly desolate, and was abondoned to anarchy.

In the first year of his reign as king of Babylon (B.C. 536), Cyrus issued a decree liberating the Jewish captives, and permitting them to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the city and the temple (2 Chronicles 36:22,23; Ezra 1; 2). The number of the people forming the first caravan, under Zerubbabel, amounted in all to 42,360 (Ezra 2:64,65), besides 7,337 men-servants and maid-servants. A considerable number, 12,000 probably, from the ten tribes who had been carried away into Assyria no doubt combined with this band of liberated captives.

At a later period other bands of the Jews returned (1) under (Ezra 7:7) (B.C. 458), and (2) (Nehemiah 7:66) (B.C. 445). But the great mass of the people remained still in the land to which they had been carried, and became a portion of the Jews of the "dispersion" (John 7:35; 1 Peter 1:1). The whole number of the exiles that chose to remain was probably about six times the number of those who returned.


CAPTIVITIES OF THE JEWS [Smith Bible Dictionary]

The present article is confined to the forcible deportation of the Jew; from their native land, and their forcible detention, under the Assyrian or Babylonian kings.

Captives of Israel. --
The kingdom of Israel was invaded by three or four successive kings of Assyria.

Pul or Surdanapalus, according to Rawlinson, imposed a tribute (B.C. 771 or 712), Rawl.) upon Menahem. (2 Kings 15:19) and 1Chr 5:26

Tiglath-pileser carried away (B.C. 740) the trans-Jordanic tribes, (1 Chronicles 5:26) and the inhabitants of Galilee, (2 Kings 15:29) comp. Isai 9:1 to Assyria.

Shalmaneser twice invaded, (2 Kings 17:3,5) the kingdom which remained to Hoshea, took Samaria (B.C. 721) after a siege of three years, and carried Israel away into Assyria. This was the end of the kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel.

Captivities of Judah .--

Sennacherib (B.C. 713) is stated to have carried into Assyria 200,000 captives from the Jewish cities which he took. (2 Kings 18:13)

Nebuchadnezzar, in the first half of his reign (B.C. 606-562), repeatedly invaded Judea, besieged Jerusalem, carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and destroyed the temple.

The 70 years of captivity predicted by Jeremiah, (Jeremiah 25:12) are dated by Prideaux from B.C. 606.

The captivity of Ezekiel dates from B.C. 598, when that prophet, like Mordecai the uncle of Esther (Esther 2:6) accompanied Jehoiachin. The captives were treated not as slaves but as colonists.

The Babylonian captivity was brought to a close by the decree, (Ezra 1:2) of Cyrus (B.C. 536), and the return of a portion of the nation under Sheshbazzar or Zerubbabel (B.C. 535), Ezra (B.C. 458) and Nehemiah (B.C. 445). Those who were left in Assyria, (Esther 8:9,11) and kept up their national distinctions, were known as The Dispersion. (John 7:35; 1:1; James 1:1

lost tribes. --

Many attempts have been made to discover the ten tribes existing as a distinct community; but though history bears no witness of the present distinct existence, it enables us to track the footsteps of the departing race in four directions after the time of the Captivity.

1. Some returned and mixed with the Jews. (Luke 2:36; Philemon 3:5) etc.

2. Some were left in Samaria, mingled with the Samaritans, (Ezra 6:21; John 4:12) and became bitter enemies of the Jews.

3. Many remained in Assyria, and were recognized as an integral part of the Dispersion; see (Acts 2:1; 26:7)

4. Most, probably, apostatized in Assyria, adopted the usages and idolatry of the nations among whom they were planted, and became wholly swallowed up in them.


EXILE [ISBE]

ek'-sil, eg'-zil (galah, tsa`ah):
Occurs twice only in the King James Version (2 Samuel 15:19 (galah, "to remove"); Isaiah 51:14 (tsa`ah, "to be bowed down")).

In the Revised Version (British and American) "exile" is substituted for "captivity" (Ezra 8:35 (shebhi), and Ezekiel 12:4 (golah)); "go into exile," for "remove and go" (Ezekiel 12:11); "exiles of Ethiopia" for "Ethiopians captives" (Isaiah 20:4); "He shall let my exiles go free" for "He shall let go my captives" (Isaiah 45:13); "an exile" for "a captive" (Isaiah 49:21). "The exile" is in the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) "the captivity" (which see).


CAPTIVITY OF ISRAEL AND JUDAH [Thompson Chain Reference]
# Foretold

    * Deuteronomy 28:36
    * 1 Kings 14:15
    * Isaiah 39:7
    * Jeremiah 13:19
    * Amos 7:11
    * Luke 21:24
    * (Dispersion)

# Fulfilment of Prophecies Concerning

    * 2 Kings 15:29
    * 2 Kings 17:6
    * 2 Kings 18:11
    * 2 Kings 24:14
    * 2 Kings 25:11
    * 2 Chronicles 28:5
    * (Jerusalem)

# Return from

    * Deuteronomy 30:3
    * Isaiah 11:11
    * Jeremiah 16:15
    * Jeremiah 23:3
    * Zephaniah 3:20
    * Zechariah 10:10
    * (Restoration) 

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