History of Christianity with Timelines

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Apostolic Age, 1st century timelines:
* Early Christianity Timelines
* Timelines of Apostle Fathers
AD 30-40 | 50 | 60 | 70 | 80 | 90 |
* Apostles * church at the upper room
* Pentecost * teachings
* Doctrine of God the Holy Spirit
* Doctrine: the gospel for salvation
* Doctrine: Water baptism
* Doctrine: Holy Spirit baptism
* Persecutions * Teachings
* Online seminary courses * Overviews
* Table of Contents
* Patristic Period, 2nd-4th centuries, c 100-325
* Early Church leaders and rulers
* Early Church Councils
* Jewish literacy * Canon Timelines
* Timeline of Scripture, various centuries
* Congregations of believing men and women
also called assemblies, congregations, churches


Early Christianity Timeline Overviews:
* Christian apologetics, Wikipedia
* Christian history, Timeline, Abraham on, ChristianityInView.com
* Christian writers, Early, Wikipedia
* Christianity, History of, Wikipedia
* Christianity, Timeline of beginning with Jesus, Wikipedia
* Church fathers, Wikipedia
* Events in Christian Church History, Timeline ChristianityToday.com
* First Century Church History 101
* Foxe's Book of Martyrs (apostle's deaths)
* Historical Jesus reconstructing life by historical methods
* History of Judaism Timeline
* History of Jerusalem Timeline
* Biblical and Historical Time Chart
* Julius Caesar to death of Constantine pbs.org
* Timelines.Info

Timelines
Apostolic Age, c 33-100 AD
See Apostolic Age, Wikipedia
[Acts 4:13 a ".. they saw the courage of Peter and John
and realized that they were unschooled, ordinary men..."]
c 30 AD
Jesus'
resurrection
and ascension

Jesus and many Jews in the first century were literate.
But many of the apostle/disciples of Jesus could neither read nor write (Acts 4:13 a).
Instead the 11 apostles knew Jesus' teachings and final commands, and, led by the Holy Spirit, how to apply them. After Jesus was taken up (ascention), the apostles went back to the upper room and assembled together with the women and some disciples. By that Pentecost, the number of faithful believers of Jesus had dwindled to 120 men and women. Acts 1:13-15
Assigned Apostle - who betrayed Jesus
Judas Iscariot, son of Simon Iscariot, betrayed the Lord,
    and died (c 30). Wikipedia. Matt 27:3-8, Acts 1:16-20
Apostles - original leadership assigned by Christ
* Andrew, brother of Simon Peter
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13;
    to Georgia, Cyprus, Malta, Romania, Ukraine,
    first bishop of Byzantium; Acts of Andrew (text)
    died mid-late 1st century
* Bartholomew may be Nathaniel of Cana in Galilee, Jo 21:2
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13;
    to India and Armenia
* James, son of Alphaeus; aka James the Less.
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13
* James, a son of Zebedee.
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13
* John, another son of Zebedee.
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13
* Jude, aka Judas Thaddaeus. (Died 1st century.)
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13
* Matthew, aka Levi. (Died 1st century.)
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13
* Matthias (replaced Judas Iscarias)
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:25-26, Ac 2:42-43, Ac 4:33  
* Philip (Died 80 AD Hierapolis, Anatolia, Roman Empire)
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13
* Simon Peter, died 64-68
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13
* Simon the Zealot, aka Simon Kananaios;
    the Cananean. Wikipedia, Acts 1:13    
* Thomas, aka Didymus, "Doubting".
    Wikipedia, Acts 1:13


c 30
The church
at
Jerusalem
By the Pentecost after Jesus' ascension, the 120 faithful men and women believers of Jesus were mostly unnamed, except for the 12 apostles. They are likely to have included:
* Mary, Jesus' mother; born c 18 BC and died c 41 near Ephesus.
She lived with John the apostle.
* Mary Magdalene John 20
* Mary of Clopas (Cleopas) might be Jesus' aunt
* Joanna and * Mary mother of James, Luke 24:10
* James, Joseph, Simon, Judas, Jesus' brothers
* More unnamed sisters and unnamed women disciples
* Salome, wife of Zebedee Mark 15:40 and Matt 27:56
* Nathaniel of Cana in Galilee, Jo 21:2
    He might be Bartholomew the apostle
* Nicodemus Jo 7:50 and Jo 19:39
* Joseph of Arimathaea Mark 15:43
* Martha, Mary, and Lazarus of nearby Bethany Lk 24:50
* Cleopas Lk 24:18 and his companion Lk 24:33
* Zacchaeus (who may have been Matthias the apostle.)
** Wikipedia has possible lists of names of the 70-72 disciples who Jesus sent out in pairs
c 30
Jewish
Pentecost
The Holy Spirit empowered the 120 in Jerusalem as Jesus had commanded and promised (Acts 2), and they came out of hiding from the upper room. That day, the believers grew by about 3000 people ( Acts 2:41 ) following their questions, Peter's answers with scriptures, and the promise of the Holy Spirit (see below). These new converts repented and were baptised (Acts 2:41). The Book of Acts, written later about 61-66 AD by the doctor disciple, Luke, follows the work of some of the apostles. Chapters 1-12 describe the first twelve years of the Christian church (c 30-42). The church grew daily ( Acts 2:47 ).

Chronological reading: The Book of the Acts of the Apostles
Wikipedia: Acts of the Apostles and Apostle teaching
Wikipedia: Apoarolic Age
Wikipedia: the Dispersion of the Apostles
Wikipedia: Apostolic see, government of churches established by apostles
Wikipedia: Split of early Christianity and Judaism

c 30 AD
teachings
Early apostles teaching: see Peter's sermon in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2). The huge audience responded with concern ("Brothers, what shall we do?").

      The Gospel - God's plan and offer for people to be saved from His wrath
Acts 2:38-39 indicates that "the way" to God's offer of salvation was to first
1) repent dead works (a Hebrews 6:1-2 doctrine)
2) be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for remission of sins
3) receive the gift of the Holy Spirit (often with the same evidence)
because the promise of salvation was to
1) the repenting people in Jerusalem that Pentecost,
2) to their children,
3) and to all afar off as many as the Lord will call.

Peter continued teaching as daily situations arose. Large groups were only one opportunity to share the gospel. For example, Peter and John were going to the temple to pray when a lame man asked them for alms. After healing him, Peter taught him and onlookers (see Acts 3:12-26). This time there was an opposite but mixed response. Jewish priests put Peter and John in jail for the night for teaching the people about Jesus' resurrection from the dead. By the next morning, a crowd had gathered, and 5000 men believed Peter's witness about Jesus (see Acts 4:1-4). What was said at Peter's and John's trial, and why, is written throughout Acts 4.

Water BAPTISM doctrine in the early church:
Acts 1:5 "For John baptised with water, but in a few days
you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit."
Acts 10:47 (water and Spirit baptisms could be separate)
* Mark 16:14-16 Jesus' commission, first to the 11 apostles
* 1Co 1:13-17 God's instructions through Paul to Gentile baptism
OTHER REFERENCES:
* Turtullian, "On Baptism". Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus,
about 155-240 AD, was a North African Christian theologian.
source: Wikipedia
* Evertson Ferguson's Baptism in the Early Church:
History, Theology, and Liturgy in the First Five Centuries
* Acts of Paul and Thecla, in Iconium (Acts 14), Fordham
Holy Spirit BAPTISM doctrine in the early church:
Acts 19:1-7 (Paul encountered some disciples who had only heard
of water baptism, for repentence, but had never heard of the baptism
of the Lord Jesus. Rather than using water, Paul laid his hands on
them, and they spoke in tongues and prophesied as usually happened
to other disciples after Pentecost (Acts 2).)

Hebrews 6:1-2 (doctrine of baptisms) NABRE Footnote a:
"Instructions about baptism: not simply about Christian baptism
but about the difference between it and similar Jewish rites,
such as proselyte baptism, Johnís baptism, and the washings
of the Qumran sectaries. Laying on of hands: in Acts 8:17; 19:6
this rite effects the infusion of the holy Spirit; in Acts 6:6; 13:3;
1Tim 4:14; 5:22; 2Tim 1:6 it is a means of conferring
some ministry or mission in the early Christian community."


OTHER REFERENCES:
* McDonnel and Montague's Christian Initiation and Baptism in
the Holy Spirit
, Goodreads
* Roman Catholic renewed doctrine: What is the Baptism in the Spirit?

c 34 AD
persecution
After the deacon Stephen was stoned to death about 34 AD, the persecution of Christians increased as promised. (Luke 21:12; Rev 2:10 ) Some moved away from Jerusalem as far as Phoenicia, Cyprus, and Antioch where at first they met with and told only the Jews about Jesus before adding new gentile believers.
Also see Foxe's Book of Martyrs.

c 40-41? AD The book of JAMES - Introduction in or about 40-41 AD written by James the Less, the Lord's brother, one of the twelve apostles. He was one of the three pillars of the Church per Galatians 2:9.
Others think this book was written around 45-49 AD, while others think he wrote it later, around 62 AD.

Other apostles: sent out from a home church
to share the gospel and to establish new churches
Paul [aka Saul] Wikipedia
    had a special calling from the Lord to be an apostle
      1Co 9:2, 1Co 15:9, 1Ti 1:1, 1Ti 2:7, 2Ti 1:11
    Paul (Saul) was a prophet and teacher at the church at Antioch.
      Acts 13:1
    was sent out from the church of Antioch
    established new churches in Asia Minor area
      especially for new Gentile believers Ro 11:13
    Paul wrote letters of theology to establish these new churches

Joses Barnabus
    Barnabas (son of consolation), a Levite from Cyprus Acts 4:36
    brought newly converted Saul to the apostles Acts 9:27
    worked with Paul Acts 14:14
    disagreed with Paul about John Mark Acts 15:2

Andronicus and Junia, fellow Jews with Paul.
    outstanding among the apostles. Romans 16:7

Judas Barsabbas and Silas
    sent from Jerusalem to go to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas.
    They were prophets, perhaps not apostles. Acts 15:22, 32

c 30-42 AD
Jerusalem
Tradition says the 12 disciples remained based in Jerusalem about 12 years. John moved to Ephesus, either with Mary, Jesus' mother, or after her death in Jerusalem. See Assumption of Mary

History of Bishops in the Christian Church, first century

c 44-46 AD
Paul and Barnabas' first mission trip, with John Mark

c 50 AD
The Council at Jerusalem: Acts 15:1-35
Paul and Barnabas' route to Jerusalem
Must Gentile converts be circumcised and keep the Law of Moses?
Do Gentiles become Jewish converts to become God's people?

Acts 15:1-35 question, deliberation, James' answer, and written reply

The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles
Portions of copies of the Didache were found a few centuries after the apostles' lifetimes
The Didache: "Teaching of the Lord to the Gentiles (Nations) by the Twelve Apostles." Wikipedia
The Didache full text, with document history, ccel.org

c 51-52 AD
Paul's
2nd mission trip
Paul and Barnabas disagreed about taking John Mark along with them for second mission trip. So they split up, and Barnabas took John Mark, while Paul took Silas.

53-67 AD
Bishop of Antioch
d c 66-69 AD
Evodius was a bishop of Antioch (53-67 AD), preceded by the apostle Peter (before he became bishop of Rome), and followed by Ignatius. The church in Antioch is where believers were first called "Christians".
Also see Foxe's Book of Martyrs 67-303.

Bishops and the Apostolic Fathers


Did written records focus more upon church organization (such as Bishops) than upon individual believers' ethics and lives?

mid-late 1st
century AD
Andrew died in Patras, Achaia, Roman Empire; Wikipedia

c 62 AD
Acts 12 talks of the death of one of the apostle James, executed by King Herod Agrippa, in Jerusalem, Judaea, Roman Empire. Because scripture identifies him as the brother of John, James may have been the son of Zebedee. But not knowing if the apostle James the Lesser, son of Alphaeus had a brother named John, maybe he is the one who died then. Or perhaps he died in lower Egypt, Wikipedia.

64-68 AD
Simon Peter died

64 AD
A generation after the death of Christ, Christianity had reached Rome among the city's poor. Members talked of a new kingdom and a new king. Jewish authorities rejected "The Way", as did Roman authorities. The Roman people blamed Nero for the burning of Rome, but he blamed it on the Christians as a reason for martyring and persecuting more and more of them. EyeWitness to History.com

66-70 AD
The Jews in Judea rebelled against Rome and the Emporer Nero. See EyeWitness to History.com

c 67 AD
Paul the apostle was put to death, probably in Rome. He was born in Tarsus about 5 AD, so was about 8 years younger than Jesus.
70 AD
Josephus Flavius gave a first hand account of the Roman assault destroying the Temple, wikipedia. His works included "The Jewish War."

73 AD
Masada fell to the Roman army. Masada, wikipedia

c 76 AD
Linus, 2nd bishop of Rome, died in Rome. He is mentioned by Paul in 2 Timothy 4:21

80 AD
Philip died in Hierapolis, Anatolia, Roman Empire

after 98 AD
John the apostle died of old age in Ephesus


Christianity history seminary courses:
* Reformed Theological Seminary with online courses (audio) and FaceBook
* Puritan Reformed Theological Seminary with Free online classes and FaceBook
* Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Pittsburgh, PA


Patristic Period c 100-451 or to the 8th century
This generation shall not pass away until all these things are fulfilled.
Mt 24:34, Mk 13:30, Lk 21:32
When it became obvious that the time frame of Jesus' return was longer than the generation of just the original apostles, early theologians began putting the verbal foundations of Christianity into writing. These early Christian writers after the Apostolic Age are called the Church Fathers, and the period is called the Patristic Period. (see Wikipedia)


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